Forest operations can cause compaction and rutting, resulting in soil degradation
processes. Soil damage is usually assessed through costly and time-consuming manual field measurements. The aim of this reseach field is to investigate the impact of logging operations on soil using traditional ground surveys integrated with laser scanning data acquired by a terrestrial portable laser scanner (PLS) and image matching.

We are currently work on:

+ quantify soils with hand-held mobile laser scanner by forwarder and harvester passes
+ Estimating soil impact in logging skid trails via close-range photogrammetry and soil parameters
+Photogrammetric Estimation of Wheel Rut Dimensions and Soil Compaction After Increasing numbers of forest machines passes


  • Elena Marra, Martina Cambi, Raul Fernandez-Lacruz, Francesca Giannetti, Enrico Marchi, Thomas Nordfjell (2018). Photogrammetric Estimation of Whell Rut Dimensions and Soil Compation After Increasing number of Forwarder Passes. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research. DOI:
  • Francesca Giannetti, Gherardo Chirici, Davide Travaglini, Francesca Bottalico, Enrico Marchi, Martina Cambi (2017). Assessment of Soil Disturbance Caused by Forest Operations by Means of Portable Laser Scanner and Soil Physical Parameters. Soil Science Society of America Journal, posted 06/26/2017. doi:10.2136/sssaj2017.02.0051